We did not have access to the submonthly data required for an explicit calculation. High-latitude surface temperature change is 5 K in the low-albedo experiment (αi = 0.3) and up to 24 K in the high-albedo experiment (αi = 0.5). The reduced response may be due to the persistence of wintertime sea ice or to an increase in ocean heat uptake, either of which can affect the thermal structure of the polar atmosphere. By systematically manipulating the strength of the surface albedo feedback, we generate a wide range of Arctic-amplified climates, which mark the transition from perennial to seasonal to ice-free conditions. 2011; Pithan and Mauritsen 2014) have revealed that increases in atmospheric heat transport make only minor contributions to warming averaged over the Arctic. Enhanced eddy energy flux is consistent with the upper-tropospheric warming that occurs in all experiments and provides a remote influence on the polar lapse rate feedback. 7b). 2. Feedbacks drive changes in atmospheric heat transport, though they are themselves modulated by the climatological heat transport. (a) Anomalous northward atmospheric energy flux calculated as the moist static energy flux divergence integrated from the South Pole to the North Pole. 8). Hence, the Ferrel cell expands poleward and the dynamical precipitation consequently increases at high latitudes, but only so long as the polar amplification is weak. Importantly, the different driving mechanisms have different fingerprints on the vertical structure of temperature change. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript and the editor, Peter Huybers. The strong compensation in the high-albedo experiment is influenced by both the magnitude of the reduction in meridional surface temperature gradient and the localization of that change approximately 12° farther equatorward than in the other experiments (see x axis of Fig. Given this vertical structure of warming, it is unsurprising that the polar lapse rate feedback is positive in the high-albedo experiments and negative in the low-albedo experiments (Fig. Results are compared to CMIP5. 3a). The ice albedo αi is systematically varied (0.3, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5) to manipulate the strength of the surface albedo feedback. This work also benefited from discussions with Tim Merlis. Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0706.s1. Specifically, the high latitudes are characterized by a negative shortwave cloud feedback, a negative lapse rate feedback, and a negligible surface albedo feedback. Contours show the control climatology. Since we are restricted to monthly climatologies and since the stationary eddy flux is zero,1 the energy flux by transient eddies at synoptic time scales is best computed as the difference between the total atmospheric and MMC energy fluxes: Finally, the latent and dry decomposition may also be performed on the MMC and eddy fluxes by considering only the latent energy contribution to moist static energy in Eq. SST anomalies associated with cold eddies cause a deceleration of surface wind, a reduction in latent and sensible heat fluxes, and declines in cloud liquid water, water vapor content, and rain rate. Atmospheric moistening, by way of the Clausius–Clapeyron relation, results in an increase in latent energy flux. diffusion during the night and losses during the day. The eddies on the other hand have some transient zonal structure which supposedly averages to zero (if you average both in time and in the zonal direction). They come from many sources and are not checked. Question about world average temperatures 1880- early 20th century, Today's Climate Change and the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Though a few studies have linked weather extremes to high-latitude warming (Francis and Vavrus 2012), analyses of the observational record are hindered by large internal variability (Screen et al. Specifically, the energy flux by the MMC is the vertical mass-weighted integral of the flux of zonal-mean monthly mean moist static energy by the zonal-mean monthly mean meridional wind: where here brackets denote a zonal average. We note that the greatest spread among energy fluxes occurs for the dry static energy flux by transient eddies in the midlatitudes.